Types of skewed thinking
Over-generalization: eg. ‘We never get any chance to do this right …’
Filtering: Focusing only on one aspect, excluding other, more positive aspects.
Discounting the positive: e.g. ‘Yes I did better than anyone might have expected but they didn’t like me.’
Absence of balance (‘all-or-nothing thinking’): Something is either right or it’s wrong – nothing in between.
Jumping to conclusions (future-ology): Thinking, ‘This is what’s going to happen’ without sufficient information.
Magnification or minimization: Exaggerating the scale of something, e.g. ‘It’s the end of the world …’
Emotional reasoning: Basing judgements exclusively on feelings rather than evidence, e.g. ‘I feel guilty – I must change what I decided.’
Blaming: e.g. ‘It must be her fault.’
Mind reading and labelling: e.g. ‘She thinks that; He’s like this’ (without evidence).
Personalization: Ego-centric behaviour in which it is difficult to focus on others, e.g. ‘Everyone must be looking at me’, ‘What I did is …’, ‘My thoughts are …’.