The 1997 Asian financial crisis hit the region and became a defining moment for Asia and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). As ADB participated in coordinated crisis responses, Asian policy makers used this opportunity to reassess their economic policies in a fundamental way. This volume presents how ADB met the challenges during the fourth decade of designing strategies to respond to rapid changes in the region following the Asian financial crisis, and responding to the changes in international development thinking. Several important policies and strategies were approved, including ADB's Poverty Reduction Strategy as well as ADB's first Long-Term Strategic Framework to 2015. ADB embarked on two major reorganizations (in 2002 and 2006) and committed to an internal reform agenda to be a more responsive, relevant, and results-oriented organization. ADB also took a proactive role in postconflict reconstruction in Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, and Timor-Leste. ADB also needed to respond to a series of external shocks such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in 2003, the Asian tsunami in 2004, and the Pakistan earthquake in 2005.