The People’s Republic of China (PRC) has the world’s longest inland waterway system. Despite the system’s potential and the government’s policies encouraging its development, inland waterway transport (IWT) has not been developed as much as other transport modes. This publication examines the constraints in developing IWT based on a study in the PRC’s Hunan province. Six major challenges threatening the viability of IWT and its integration into the whole logistics chain have been identified. The analyses and case study lead to recommendations that are relevant not just to the PRC but also to other developing countries.